- Make sure you have no open applications, if you are connected to the internet disconnect. The only thing you should have open when you are creating your CD ROM master is the writing application itself.
- Dirt and debris on the surface of the disc can cause problems, and will result in permanent defects to the disc. Dust can mask the CD Recording laser resulting in a loss of light intensity and poor quality. Shadows of contaminants will mask readout surface and will result in permanent defects in the dye layer during recording, and will cause additional errors when the disc is read. Clean discs and a clean environment are essential to good CD-R quality.
The three variables that determine the quality of a CD master
- CD creator program and the environment that the program is used in.
- The CD writer itself.
- The media used. CD-ROM Mastering with Adaptec Easy CD Creator 3-3.5b.
Using CD Creator Software
Ideal Situation: Move all necessary files to a single location (directory) on a single hard drive. This is essential if you are writing your CD ROM on the fly. If you are having trouble writing your CD or you are getting errors during the writing process, a disc image can be created first.
This prevents possible buffer under-runs and gives the CD writer a continuous flow of information helping to create the best possible CD-R. Not writing on the fly: On the Data CD layout screen drag over the necessary files, edit the volume label, by either right clicking on the CD icon then going to the rename option, or by highlighting the icon and pressing the F2 key. Then select create disc image from the file menu. Once the disc image has been created you can then write the CD from the disc image.
To do this go to the file menu and select “Create CD from Disc Image option.”
Open Adaptec Easy CD Creator, close the CD creation wizard > Click on Data CD Layout Tab > Drop files in the CD Layout window > Edit volume label.
Note: User default is CD ROM Mode 2/XA. To change this setting right click the volume label go down to properties option and select. Click on the Data Settings tab. Make sure the file system is Joliet to preserve long filenames. Click on the properties dialogue box for Joliet file system.
At the bottom of the window there are two options Mode 1 and Mode 2, change it from the default Mode 2 to Mode 1: CDROM.
- CD ROM Mode 1 Data format was defined in 1984 the “Yellow Book” by Phillips and Sony.
- CD ROM XA format was defined in 1991. CD ROM XA is an extension to the yellow book standard. To obtain maximum compatibility CD ROM Mode 1 should be the format of choice; because many older drives do not support CD ROM XA. CD ROM XA should only be used for multimedia applications.
Enter Publisher’s Name and Company. Make sure you click on Save as Defaults or you will have to enter this information, and change the CD format every time you enter Adaptec Easy CD. After you are happy with the layout of the CD use Create CD…in the file menu or click on the circle button on the button bar.
For masters we recommend writing CDs at 2x speed even if you have a faster CD writer.
Select Write Speed: 2x 300KB/s If you are familiar with your CD writer select Create CD option. If not select test write option. This won’t write any information to the CD-R but will test disc access time and will do a full simulation write. Click on Advanced Tab in the CD Creation Setup window. Select the Disc at Once Option. See below:
CDR Disc Quality
Why does this disc work fine on some players and not others? There are no standards for players, and each CD player is slightly different. Playability and portability is determined be several factors, and rules that are followed when a user creates a CD-R master.
The easiest way to test disc quality is to measure a disks error rate. Its an effective method because any serious problems on the disc affect error rate. Error rates are not necessarily physical flaws on the disc, but a measure on how well a disc works with a player.
Disk error descriptions
Prior to CD Replication or CDR duplication we put your master through a standard Quality Assurance test process. We are looking for errors that could reduce the readablility of production CDs in the field. Here is a summary of the common errors that are tested:
- BLER (The basic error rate.) BLER stands for block error rate. A block consists of 32 symbols 24 of these symbols are data and 8 are used for error correction. There are 7350 blocks of data per second when a disc is played at 1x. Block error rate is the number of blocks out of 7350 that contain any erroneous bytes at the first decoder.
- E11 E11 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second of data that contain one erroneous byte at the first decoder.
- E21 E21 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second of data that contain two erroneous bytes at the first decoder.
- E31 E31 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second that contain three or more erroneous bytes at the first decoder.
- E12 E12 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second that contain one erroneous byte at the second decoder.
- E22 E22 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second that contain 2 erroneous bytes at the second decoder.
- E32 E32 is the number of blocks out of 7350 per second that contain three or more erroneous bytes at the second decoder.
- BURST BURST is the number of blocks in a row with two or more bad symbols at the first decoder.
- UNCR Uncorrectables are erroneous bytes that cannot be corrected by the first or second decoder.
New discs that pass BLER and BURST requirements but have E22/E32 errors may initially be readable. These discs will soon become unusable when packing, shipping, storage and handling result in scratches, fingerprints and other contamination of the readout surface. New discs that meet specs will have a much longer life under such conditions.
The replication process involves many more parameters and errors.